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Electronic Toll Collection

RFID ETC(Electronic Toll Collection) Solution

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Background

Electronic toll collection aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads, HOV lanes, toll bridges, and toll tunnels by collecting tolls without cash and without requiring cars to stop. Electronic toll booths may operate alongside cash lanes so that drivers who do not have transponders can pay a cashier or throw coins into a receptacle. With cashless tolling, cars without transponders are either excluded or pay by plate – a bill may be mailed to the address where the car's license plate number is registered, or drivers may have a certain amount of time to pay with a credit card by phone. Open road tolling is a popular form of cashless tolling without toll booths; cars pass electronic readers even at highway speeds without the safety hazard and traffic bottlenecks created by having to slow down to go through an automated toll booth lane.


System Introduction

Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) provide communications between a vehicle and the roadside in specific locations, for example toll plazas. They may then be used to support specific Intelligent Transport System applications such as Electronic Fee Collection.

 

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Configuration of the ETC system


DSRC are for data-only systems and operate on radio frequencies in the 5,725 MHz to 5,875 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. DSRC systems consist of Road Side Units (RSUs) and the On Board Units (OBUs) with transceivers and transponders. The DSRC standards specify the operational frequencies and system bandwidths, but also allow for optional frequencies which are covered by national regulations.

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Solution 1:EPC C1G2

EPC C1G2 are the short names commonly used instead of "Electronic Product Code Class 1 Generation 2" standard.

Tag:Higgs™ 3 EPC Class 1 Gen 2 RFID Tag IC
Higgs-3 offers a flexible memory architecture that provides for the optimum allocation of EPC and User memory for different use cases such as legacy part numbering systems and service history. User memory can also be read and or write locked on 64-bit boundaries, supporting a variety of public/private usage models.

The general steps are as follows:
In the parking lot ETC project, a reader can connect up to 4 antennas. The reading times of multiple antennas on the same tag will be collected within 200ms, and the lane where the tag is located will be judged according to the reading times.

The entire verification process is:
1. Read the EPC
2. Read TID // 1,2 and then do step 3

3. Read the protected data on the user area through access password

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The Hopeland reader has the ability to read EPC, TID, and user zone data with access password simultaneously with one instruction


 

Read Epc 12byte + tid 12byte + user 8byte (04~07 block , 4 word data with access password)

 

Total Time(S)

Counts

Single average read time

Read times in 200ms

30

1051

0.028544244

7.006666667

30

988

0.030364372

6.586666667

30

1053

0.028490028

7.02

 

Time calculation method is Client (Demo software) -> Reader -> Tag
The sampling method is obtained by the total read times in 30 seconds, that is, the time of each read is obtained by 30 / total read times.


 

Solution 2:EPC C2G2

 

Hopeland reader supports the latest EPC C2G2 protocol

 

EPC Class 2 tags are enhanced Gen 2 Class 1 tags. They contain all of the Class 1 features plus an extended TAG ID (TID), extended user memory, authenticated access control and additional features that will be defined in the Class 2 specification.

 

Tag:NXP® UCODE® DNA Track EPC Class 2 Gen 2
This advanced RAIN RFID chip delivers precise, automated tracking while also offering secure product authentication based on AES encryption. The result is detailed inventory control with the ability to let businesses and consumers confirm originality.

 

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C2G2 tag authentication process


Reader Setting


Insert and activate Encryption keys
– Keys are located in “virtual” user memory
– Keys can be inserted, verified and activated using standard BlockWrite
– After activation the keys can only be used for authentication
(they will be read/write protect)

Two 128-bit encryption keys
o Key0 for Tag Authentication,
o Key1 for Tag Authentication with additional custom data

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Untraceable Hides (parts) of the tag’s TID, EPC and/or user memory


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Get C2G2 challenge and cypher data

UCODE DNA implement. of ISO/IEC 29167-10
UCODE DNA is designed to be compliant with 29167-10
Supported commands
– TAM1 for Tag Authentication
– TAM2 for Tag Authentication with additional custom data
– ResponseBuffer of 256 bits, to be accessed by the ReadBuffer command
Selected implementation options:
– Three memory profiles defined:
o EPC
o TID
o User Memory
– Two operating modes:
o No additional data (authentication only)
o CBC-encryption of additional custom data, max. 128 bits
– Two 128-bit encryption keys:
o Key0 for Tag Authentication, with MPI: 0000000000000000b
o Key1 for Group and Tag Authentication, with MPI: 0000000000000111b

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Application & Solutions Application RFID ETC(Electronic Toll Collection) Solution

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